SQL Math Functions: 15 Definitions & Examples

Download Now: Free WordPress Website Guide + Checklist
Clint Fontanella
Clint Fontanella

Published:

In the world of SQL, math functions play a significant role in performing advanced calculations and analyzing complex data. They can be a key component to your data strategy that will help you better manipulate and manage your company's data.

Developer using a list of SQL math functions

That's why we've compiled this list of essential SQL math functions and accompanying examples for each one. Mastering these functions allows you to perform complex calculations and extract powerful insights from your database.

Let's get started.

Get Started with HubSpot's Analytics Software for Free

SQL Math Functions

The SQL functions below are based on the following table:

Database: Beverages

ID #

Product Name

Unit

Inventory

Price

101

Water

Pallet - 40 Cases

10

200

102

Lemonade

Pallet - 40 Cases

5

400

103

Soda

3 Gallon Bag

8

94

104

Seltzer

Pallet - 40 Cases

3

350

105

Milk

Crate - 4 Gallons

2

12

1. Sum Function: SUM()

The sum function returns the total of all values in a column. 

Sum Function Example

SELECT Sum(inventory)
FROM   beverages; 

Output:

28

/*In this example, the sum function calculates the total of all values in the “Inventory” column.

2. Average Function: AVG()

The average function returns the average of all values in a column. 

Average Function Example

SELECT Average(inventory)
FROM   beverages; 

Output:

5.6

/*In this example, the output is 5.6 because that’s the average of all values in the “Inventory” column.

3. Round Function: ROUND()

The round function rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places. In the following syntax, the first number represents the number you want to round, while the second represents the number of decimal places you want to round to.

Round Function Example

SELECT Round(330.3333, 1) 

Output:

330.3

/*In this example, 330.3333 is rounded to the first decimal point. 

4. Truncate Function: TRUNCATE()

Like the round function, the truncate function also rounds a number to the specified number of decimal places.

Truncate Function Example

SELECT Truncate(330.3333, 1) 

Output:

330.3

/*In this example, 330.3333 is rounded to the first decimal point. 

5. Max Function: MAX()

The max function returns the largest number or value in a given column.

Max Function Example 

SELECT Max(price)
FROM   beverages; 

Output:

400

/* The output for this example is 400 because lemonade is the highest price at 400$ per pallet. 

6. Min Function: MIN()

The min function returns the smallest number or value in a given column. 

Min Function Example

SELECT Min(price)
FROM   beverages; 

Output:

12

/* The output for this example is 12 because milk is the lowest price at 12$ per crate. 

7. Count Function: COUNT()

The count function returns the number of rows that match the given criteria.

Count Function Example

SELECT Count(inventory)
FROM   beverages 

Output:

5

/* The output for this example is five because that’s how many rows there are for the “Inventory” column in the “Beverages” table. 

8. Power Function: POWER()

The power function takes the first specified number and raises it to the power of the second number.

Power Function Example

SELECT Power(10, 2); 

Output:

100

/* In this example, 10 is raised to the power of 2, which equals 100. 

9. Log Function: LOG()

The log function returns the natural logarithmic value of a given number. You can also specify the base by adding an additional number, like in the example below.

Log Function Example

SELECT Log(5, 2) 

Output:

2.3219280948873622

/* In this example, we returned the logarithmic value of 5 to the base of 2.

10. Absolute Function: ABS()

The absolute function returns the absolute value of a given number.

Absolute Function Example

SELECT Abs(-8) 

Output:

8

/* This example calculates the absolute value of -8, which is 8. 

11. Square Root Function: SQRT()

The square root function calculates the square root of a given number.

Square Root Function Example

SELECT Sqrt(100); 

Output:

10

/* This example calculates the square root of 100, which is 10. 

12. Sine Function: SIN()

The sine function returns the sine of a given number.

Sine Function Example

SELECT Sin(100); 

Output:

-0.50636564110975879

/*This example returns the sine of 100

13. Cosine Function: COS()

The cosine function calculates the cosine of a given number.

Cosine Function Example

SELECT Cos(100); 

Output:

0.86231887228768389

/*This example returns the cosine of 100

14. Modulo Function: MOD()

The modulo or mod function calculates the remainder of a number divided by another number.

Modulo Function Example

SELECT Mod(8, 3); 

Output:

2

/*For this example, the output would be 2 because 8 divided by 3 creates a remainder of 2.

15. Ceil Function: CEIL()

The ceil or ceiling function rounds a given number up to the nearest integer.

Ceil Function Example

SELECT Ceil(91.8); 

Output:

92

/* This example rounds the number 91.8 to the nearest integer, which is 92.

Note: The ceil function can be used with MySQL. For more MySQL functions, click here.

By utilizing these functions in your SQL queries, you can manipulate data quickly and accurately and perform complex calculations that save valuable time and effort. From basic addition and subtraction to more complex operations like logarithms, we hope these math functions provide a helpful starting point for anyone seeking to work more efficiently with relational databases in SQL.

Author's Note: This post was written/edited by a human with the assistance of generative AI.

analytics

Related Articles

Pop up for DOWNLOAD NOW: FREE WORDPRESS WEBSITE GUIDE + CHECKLIST FREE GUIDE TO WORDPRESS WEBSITES

Launch your WordPress website with the help of this free guide and checklist.

    Pop up for DOWNLOAD NOW: FREE WORDPRESS WEBSITE GUIDE + CHECKLIST FREE GUIDE TO WORDPRESS WEBSITES

    CMS Hub is flexible for marketers, powerful for developers, and gives customers a personalized, secure experience

    START FREE OR GET A DEMO