Every time you visit a web page, you’re establishing a virtual connection with the website’s servers and transferring files back and forth. Every website works this way. However, it’s up to the website whether this connection is safe or not.
How, then, is this technology so widespread if most people haven’t even heard of it? Well, something you might have noticed a shift in URLs across the web from “http” to “https”. When a URL begins with “https”, this means that the URL is protected under SSL.
Every day, the old HTTP is becoming less common and HTTPS is becoming more of an expectation. To ensure your WordPress site keeps visitors protected and happy, let’s learn more about how SSL/HTTPS benefits websites and why you should use it. Then, I’ll explain how you can get an SSL certificate and set up your WordPress site with this new configuration.
What Does an SSL Certificate Do?
To understand what SSL certificates are, we first need to understand SSL as a concept. SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, and is a protocol (i.e. a set of set rules and procedures) for securing data transfers between a browser requesting a website and the web server delivering the website.
More specifically, SSL encrypts data transfers between two machines in such a way that only the browser and server can decrypt the files. This way, if the files were somehow intercepted by a bad actor, they wouldn’t be able to interpret or modify the stolen data.
SSL works in conjunction with another internet protocol you’ve probably heard of, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP dictates how web servers and web browsers send files to each other. When the SSL protocol is applied to a website, the HTTP protocol changes to HTTPS — the extra “S” stands for “secure” or “SSL.”
You can verify whether a website uses SSL by checking the beginning of its URL for “https”. Most browsers will also display a padlock icon to indicate that your connection is secured with SSL encryption. Here’s what that looks like in Google Chrome:
This brings us to the question: How do you activate SSL on your website?
This is where SSL certificates come in. An SSL certificate is a collection of small data files located on a web server that establish an encrypted link between the server and the browsers that access the server. When a browser first accesses a website, it will check the host for an SSL certificate. If one is found and verified, the little padlock icon will appear.
The certificate files themselves contain identifying information about the certificate holder, the expiration date, and a public key that is used to encrypt the data. There are several kinds of SSL certificates available, which we’ll explore later on.
For a quick overview on understanding what HTTPS is and how to get started with it, check out our video guide.
Why Do You Need SSL in WordPress?
Today, SSL isn’t a luxury. For most websites, it’s a necessity, and there are three primary reasons why.
First, of course, is security. Websites often handle the transfer of confidential data like payment information, login credentials, and health records. If this data is intercepted, the consequences for the visitor and the web service can be disastrous. If you’re an online store or a website that requires login, the cost of an SSL certificate is nothing compared to the potential damage done by a successful attack.
Plus, WordPress users are especially vulnerable to these types of attacks. According to Sucuri Security, WordPress sites are successfully hacked more often than any other type of website. This is due to WordPress’s security vulnerabilities, plus the fact that many WordPress users tend to be new site owners who neglect security principles. Don’t be one of them.
Second, SSL affects your presence in search. Since 2014, Google has listed HTTPS as a factor in its ranking algorithm. If your site lacks it, you’re less likely to land in front of potential visitors. Even if you’re not handling secure transactions, SSL is worth it for SEO.
The third and final big reason for SSL is the user experience factor. Remember how web browsers will visually indicate when a connection is encrypted? If a connection is not encrypted, users see something like this in the browser:
...not the best way to get your visitors to trust you. We’re used to seeing the padlock in our browser bar, so when we land on an unsecured page, the absence of one immediately dampens our experience. The consequences of poor user experience may not be as dire as poor security, but they can harm your business nonetheless. And, unlike the WordPress branding in your footer, you can't get rid of this warning with clever coding.
With these reasons in mind, let’s see how to get an SSL certificate for your WordPress website.
How to Get an SSL Certificate in WordPress
Due to their popularity, SSL certificates are easy to acquire. Your exact process will depend on your hosting provider. But in general, we can break it down into three steps:
1. Determine the type of SSL certificate you need.
SSL certificates vary in type and cost. One certificate can run you anywhere from zero to hundreds of dollars per year, depending on which certificate you choose and who you get it from. Here are the types of SSL certificates you can install:
Domain Validation Certificate
A domain validation (DV) certificate is the cheapest and most basic SSL certificate. The verification process to receive a DV certificate is minimal, and it displays just the padlock icon in the browser bar. This certificate is best for low-budget sites that don’t handle any transfer of sensitive information.
Organization Validated Certificate
Organization validated (OV) certificates are the next step up in protection — they display a padlock along with your company’s name in the browser bar, and do a more thorough job of validating the identity of the certificate holder.
Extended Validation Certificate
An extended validation (EV) certificate is the most expensive certificate, as it requires you to prove you are authorized to use the domain you’re submitting. In the browser, it displays a padlock alongside the business name and geolocation. Businesses handling highly sensitive information like payment info or medical data use EV certificates if not OV certificates.
Unified Communications Certificate
A unified communications (UCC) certificate applies SSL protection to multiple domains on the same certificate, and is meant for online properties with multiple websites. This is opposed to a single domain SSL certificate, which only protects one domain.
Wildcard SSL Certificate
A wildcard SSL certificate applies SSL protection to the domain it was purchased for, along with all of the domain’s associated subdomains. For example, a wildcard SSL certificate purchased for mysite.com would also cover blog.mysite.com and store.mysite.com.
2. Acquire an SSL certificate.
Once you’ve picked the SSL certificate you need, the next step is to acquire one through a certificate authority (CA). A CA is an organization that generates SSL certificates and authenticates the websites requesting them.
Any of the sources we’ve listed below can provide you with an SSL certificate. Depending on the type of certificate, verification by the CA may take up to an hour or up to a few days to go through, so be patient!
Your Hosting Provider
Before searching for a third-party CA, check to see if your current WordPress host offers SSL certificates through their service. Many include at least one SSL certificate with their plans and will handle the setup process for you. So, it’s worth it to check if your host offers the type of SSL certificate you need.
Let’s Encrypt is a nonprofit CA that distributes free SSL certificates. Its goal is to make SSL protection more common and easier to obtain. Let’s Encrypt issues over a million certificates per day, and is backed by major players like Google, Amazon, and Shopify.
While starting from scratch requires some coding knowledge, many hosts already have Let’s Encrypt integrated and allow you to get a free certificate through your hosting admin panel. Certificates from Let’s Encrypt are valid for only 90 days, but you can renew them an infinite number of times and set your certificate to renew automatically.
Your SSL certificate files will be located on your web server, so the installation process varies by hosting provider. Consult with your host’s documentation for installing SSL — you may need to employ FTP to upload your SSL certificate yourself. Still, this should hopefully be the least time-consuming step of the process.
4. Configure WordPress for your SSL certificate.
After installing your SSL certificate on your server, there are several steps you must take on your WordPress website to fully transition your site to SSL.
First, remember that your site now follows the HTTPS protocol. If you’re switching your website over to SSL, you’ll have to update your existing URLs from “http” to “https”. Otherwise, people (and search engine crawlers) trying to access your “http” link will be shown an outdated version of your site and/or a warning in the browser. To resolve this, you must set your HTTP URLs to permanently redirect to the new HTTPS URLs.
This step can be done manually, or with a plugin like Really Simple SSL. The Really Simple SSL plugin automatically redirects all incoming requests to “https” URLs. It also replaces “http” with “https” in content source links.
Next, make sure your WordPress address and site address follow the HTTPS protocol. Log into your WordPress dashboard, then select Settings > General. Here, check that both your WordPress Address and Site Address begin with “https://”. If not, change these URLs.
The Really Simple SSL plugin also handles this step for you.
You’ll also want to locate any links to your website located both on and outside of your website and change these to HTTPS. Look through blog posts, social media profiles, and other places where you’ve linked to your site. While your permanent redirects will handle any links that you miss, it’s a good idea to change the ones you can find.
Finally, conduct one final sweep of your web pages under your secured domain(s). Look at each URL and make sure it says “https”. If you find any discrepancies, see our explanation of SSL errors for solutions.
Protect Your Visitors and Your Business with SSL
The SSL protocol is a cornerstone of cybersecurity today, and one of the most important measures you can take to protect visitors on your WordPress site.
However, your security doesn’t end there. There’s a big reason why WordPress websites are targeted at disproportionately higher rates than other CMSs — it’s because hackers assume that WordPress users are inexperienced and will fail to take the proper precautions.
This doesn’t have to be true for your website, though. For more security best practices, see our Ultimate Guide to WordPress Security. Your visitors deserve protection, and your business needs it.
Originally published Feb 8, 2021 7:00:00 AM, updated March 19 2021